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Multiple Intelligences In 1983 Howard Gardner authored his book Frames of mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Gardner proposed a way of explaining intelligence that differs from the IQ (Intelligence Quotient) scores which are acquired from a series of standardised tests—composed to measure a person’s cognitive abilities according to their age group (Science Daily 2018). According to Gardner traditional psychometric perspectives of intelligence are too limited (Cherry 2018). Gardner points out eight different kinds of intelligences with a possible addition of a ninth categorised as existentialist intelligence. The eight types of intelligences enables Gardner’s theoretical paradigm to capture a broader range of abilities and talents that people possess. The eight intelligences 1: Visual-Spatial Intelligence People with this intelligence are good in visualising and are skilled with directions, maps, charts, videos, and pictures. 2: Linguistic-Verbal Intelligence People with his intelligence are skilled with words both when writing and speaking. They are also usually good in writing stories, memorising information, and reading. 3: Logical-Mathematical Intelligence This intelligence entails skills in reasoning, recognising patterns, and analysing problems logically. 4: Bodily-Kinaesthetic Intelligence This intelligence relate to body movements. People with highly bodily-kinaesthetic intelligence tend to be good in hand-eye coordination and performing actions. 5: Musical Intelligence Individuals who have strong musical intelligence are good at thinking in patterns, rhythms, and sounds. They tend to have talents for composition and performance. 6: Interpersonal Intelligence This intelligence entails skills in understanding and interacting with other people. People with a highly developed interpersonal intelligence are good in connecting to emotions, motivations, desires, and intentions of people around them. 7: Intrapersonal Intelligence A person who has a well-developed intrapersonal intelligence has a good awareness of his or her own emotions, and motivations. These kinds of people engage in self-reflection and analysis as well as daydreaming, exploring relationships with other people, and managing their personal strengths. 8: Naturalistic Intelligence This intelligence is the most recent addition in Gardner’s theory and has been more criticised than the other seven original intelligences. Gardner suggests that individuals with naturalistic intelligence tend to be interested in nurturing, exploring environments, and learning about other species. Thus, people with naturalistic intelligence are well aware of subtle changes to their environment (Cherry 2018). More than logics and mathematics According to Gardner (Armstrong n.d.) schools and culture emphasise on logical-mathematical and linguistic intelligence and not so much on artistic abilities. Gardner maintains that schools and society should place equal attention on people who possess abilities within music, architecture, entrepreneurial, design, dance and so on. Children with unique ways of thinking risk being labelled as underachievers and learning disabled when they do not comply with the dominating view of logical-mathematical and linguistic intelligence. I would add here, although, Gardner makes a distinction between mathematics and logics on one side and abilities such as music on the other side. I believe, from my own experience with studies in classical piano, that there is logic and mathematics in music as well. BBC (2018) published a report, School Success, on how one school managed to motivate their students in learning better with the help of music. This report provides an example of Gardner’s theory in practice where teachers managed motivate students that previously were not. Why multiple intelligences The theory of multiple intelligences is significant for the teaching methods in the classrooms. Gardner suggests that teachers should be trained to teach in various ways using music, art activities, role play, multimedia, field trips, inner reflection and cooperative learning. The purpose is to give every student the opportunity to learn in ways that harmonise with their cognitive abilities (Armstrong n.d.). Multiple intelligences allows for eight potential ways to learning. If, a teacher is having difficulties in teaching a student through the traditional linguistic or logical methods; the teachers has several other ways in conveying the information to the student. The basic idea is the same for kindergarten teachers, graduate school instructors, and adult learners who are engaged in self-studies (Armstrong n.d.). First step in practice Teachers do not need to teach in all eight ways, just to see the available possibilities and then decide the suitable teaching methods. The theory of multiple intelligences is compelling because it widens the understandings of teaching methods beyond the framework of linguistic and logical methods (e.g. textbooks, formulas, writing assignments, lecture, etc.). Armstrong (n.d.) suggests writing the topic of interest in the centre of a blank sheet of paper and from the topic drawing eight lines outwards. The lines should be labelled with the eight intelligences. Having done so, the brainstorming can begin. Every teaching idea can be written down next to its corresponding intelligence. Criticism There is criticism towards Gardner’s theory from both psychologists and educators. The arguments are that it is too broad and that the eight intelligences only represent talents, personally traits and abilities and that there is a lack of empirical research. The theory of multiple intelligences is however, still popular among educators. The theory can be helpful in understanding individual’s strengths (Armtrong n.d.). References Armstrong, T. (n.d.). Multiple Intelligences. American Institute For Learning and Human Development. Retrieved (2018-10-13) from: http://www.institute4learning.com/resources/articles/multiple-intelligences/ BBC (2018, November). School Success. [Video file]. Retrieved (2018-10-13) from: https://www.facebook.com/bbcthree/videos/world-hacks-school-success/246390636059022/ Cherry, K. (2018). Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Very Well Mind. Retrieved (2018-10-13) from: https://www.verywellmind.com/gardners-theory-of-multiple-intelligences-2795161 Science Daily (2018). Intelligence Quotient. Retrieved (2018-10-13) from: https://www.sciencedaily.com/terms/intelligence_quotient.htm